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However, against the background...

Автор: olegj от 24-01-2013, 18:37

However, against the background...

However, against the background of other national banking markets in Russia at present still has a low penetration of foreign players. Thus, the total contribution of non-residents in the capital of credit institutions, excluding non-residents under the significant influence of the residents of the Russian Federation does not exceed 23%. In comparison, the share of foreign capital in the banking system in Poland is around 70%, Lithuania - 77%, the Czech Republic - 97%, Estonia - 99%. About 4.1% (32 billion The history of the banking system in Russia Russian banking system began to develop much later than in Western countries, and its development has gone through several stages. There are roughly five stages: 1st - from the middle of the XVIII century.

However, against the background...

to 1860 - the period of creation and functioning of the banks as public (state-owned), 2nd - from 1860 to 1917 - the period of development and improvement of the banking system, the third - from 1917 to 1930 - the formation of a new banking system, 4th - 1932 to 1987 - the stable functioning of the "socialist" of the banking system; 5th - from 1988 to the present time - the formation of a modern market-based banking system. The beginning of the first stage in the development of the banking system was the creation in 1733 of state bank loan, which is more of a role played treasury pawnshop.

But even before that in Russia as early as 1665 in Pskov, warlord Athanasius Ordin-Nashchokin attempt was made to the Commercial Bank, which has not been approved by the central government, and the bank has not started functioning. Economic development required an increase in lending opportunities. Therefore, in 1754 created two banks - State Loan Bank for the nobility, called to make short-term loans secured by real estate of nobles, and the Bank to recuperate at the St. Petersburg port of commerce and merchants to provide merchants short term loans on the security of goods, precious metals, as well as guarantees the city magistrates.

However, these banks are quickly out of business in the face of non-repayment of the loan principal. The same fate befell the trade, commercial banks Petersburg and Astrakhan, created in 1764 for the promotion of foreign trade.

However, against the background...

Along with the banks in 1772, appearing specialized credit institutions that accept demand deposits and issuing loans or secured by a mortgage (SAVE cash), or the security of precious metals (pawnshop). In 1775 there Orders of Public Welfare, which form capital by accepting deposits and issuing short-term loans secured by real estate. Headphones with in 1786, when on the basis of the Moscow and St. Petersburg land banks for the nobility was established by the State Land Bank, institutions appear long-term mortgage lending. Among them - Support for the nobility Bank (1797), a feature of which was the issuance of long-term mortgage loans no money, and bank notes with forced tional course.

They were required to receive as individuals, and the Treasury on the cost of forced and brought a certain annual income. In 1817 created the State Commercial Bank, which is not only accepted deposits, but also to giro payments (free transfers - transfers). Among the active operations of the bank stood granting of loans and accounting for promissory notes and bills.

In this case, the bank was granted certain privileges, in particular, capital contributions are not taxed, and not used to finance government spending. State retained some control over the bank by the half of the directors and the board of the bank contended solutions on active operations.

This bank had 12 branches. In the 50-ies. XIX century. started to develop conditions for the expansion of the banking system. But, in fact, the existing State-owned banks were institutions with the inherent features of usurious.

However, against the background...

Therefore, in 1859 it was decided, initiating a new phase of development of the banking system. Its reform in 1861 included the elimination of all state deny credit institutions and the establishment of commercial banks.

The beginning of the reform was the abolition in 1860 of the Credit Bank, whose actions were transferred to the St. Petersburg SAVE treasury. In the same year, was established by the Bank of Russia on the basis of the state commercial bank.

Simultaneously with the opening of the State Bank began the process of creating private long-term and short-term credit facilities. Among the most prominent were the long-term: St. Petersburg Municipal Credit Society, established on the basis of mutual lending and joint liability for the grant of loans on the security of the urban real estate; Kherson clerk Bank, established on the basis of the principle of mutual tion lending;

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