The new banking system evolved quite difficult and contradictory. By the beginning of 1992 there were already 1,414 commercial banks, of which 767 were built on the former specialized banks and 646 re-educated. But, in fact, most of them consisted of small banks - 1037, or 73% of the total number of banks (registered capital of 5 to 25 million rubles.
). Large banks (registered capital of more than 200 million rubles.) Was 24, or 2% of the total. The main large banks were Sberbank and Vnesheconombank.
Feature of the banks during this period was "their instability, which causes not least are insufficient qualifications, lack of capital, incorrect interest rate policy, high risk and low liquidity. All of this led to a large number of bankruptcies.
By 1994, the banking system can be considered fully developed. In it, there were 2,019 commercial and cooperative banks with 4,539 branches and 414 lending institutions. Geography is the location of these banks has not changed since 1990 - the majority going to the Central District - 43.6%, and the leader is Moscow, which has a 37.3% of the banks. In the North Caucasus 13.4% of all banks in Western Siberia - 8%, in the Volga region - 7.4%, in the Urals - 7.3%, in the Far East - 5.1%, in Eastern Siberia - 3, 3%. The least saturated area was the Central Black Earth - 1.5% of the total number of banks.
And increased total capital of banks, it was 968 billion rubles. Speaking about the specialization of banks, it should be noted that almost all of them are basically universal, only a few of them that were created either as a "pocket", or on the basis of spe ized banks differ from Activity.
Examples are Neftehimbank, ICB, Agricultural, agroprombank. Feature of 1994 was the creation of the first mortgage banks engaged in providing long-term loans secured by real estate.
Among them are the Moscow Joint-Stock Bank Mortgage, mortgage Standartbank, St. Petersburg mortgage bank. The following years were nothing particularly new in the development of the banking system is not brought.
First, continued growth in the number of banks - in 1995 they became in 2517, and from 1996 began their decline: January 1, 1996 - 2295 on October 1, 1996 - 2030, and on October 1, 1997 - 1764. In this case, registered banks became more - in 2558. But despite this, the structure of commercial banks in the country does not change. Up to now, the characteristic remains the same trends: 1. Dominated by small and medium-sized banks.
2. The form of ownership are divided into mutual banks, joint-stock and mixed. 3. The bulk of banks still lives in the Central District. 4. Increasing the number of branches, representative offices, both in Russia and abroad.
5. For the Russian Federation is characterized by universal banks, is underdeveloped network of specialized banks, such as mortgage. 6. The main purpose of the banking system is a credit economy in the face of three economic agents - people, businesses and government. In this regard, the domestic banking system is far behind the West. Crediting of the population is engaged almost exclusively Savings Bank.
Lending to businesses is relatively small place in the operations of commercial banks. 7. In the structure of passive operations occupy the bulk of ruble deposits of individuals and legal entities. Gradually improving, the banking system of Russia is increasingly starting to become a developed system, not only in appearance but also in substance of transactions.
The network of branches, representative offices and within the country and abroad, increasing the network of non-bank credit institutions. The policy of the Central Bank, aimed at increasing the stability and soundness of the banking system, should lead to the development of large, competitive, stable banks and the gradual replacement of the small ones.
History of the German banking system In Germany after the Second World War, was created a two-tier banking system, with the upper level is the central bank of the country - German Federal Bank, and the second - commercial, personal credit, banks and specialized credit institutions. Germany's central bank German Federal Bank (Deutsche Bundesbank) is the successor of the German central bank - the Reichsbank.
The law of the credit system in 1934 provided the Reichsbank exclusive rights in relation to the credit system, and the law of the Reichsbank in 1939 completely subordinated it to the Fuhrer. After the surrender of Germany in 1945 in the Soviet zone of occupation in all branches of the Reichsbank were closed, while in the Western zones, they continued their activities. In February 1948, at their base the Bank of the German states, and in 1957 took its merger with the central banks of land and the formation of the German Federal Bank.
In accordance with the law of the German Federal Bank in 1957 and the new edition in 1992, he was independent of government. However, given the performance of its tasks he was required to support the Government in the field of general economic policy.