The main place in the assets of the Bank of Canada invests in government bonds. It also carries out operations with securities on their placement in the open market, the interest on which is the most important source of income. The main article of liability of the Bank of Canada notes are issued by it. Part of their deposited in commercial banks as cash reserves.
In addition, non-interest bearing deposits of commercial banks are also allowances. In addition, the Bank of Canada acts as a "bank of banks", ie is a lender of last resort to commercial banks, to which it provides short-term loans in small amounts, makes small investments in foreign securities. Commercial banks as creditors of the Bank of Canada in accordance with the law should keep in it their reserves. Deposits at the Bank of Canada held the Government of Canada, the major foreign central banks.
The main activities of the Bank of Canada formed in the period of consolidation of state-monopoly tendencies, which contributed to increased government regulation of the monetary system. This was especially evident in the post-war period, when the state passed a focused counter-cyclical regulation of the economy.
The greatest activity in the regulation of the Bank of Canada monetary showed in the second half of the 1950s. As a regulator of economic activity performed discount rate that changed in 1944, in 1950 and in 1955. ranging from 1.5 to 2.5%. However, the low effectiveness of interest rate policy, its lack of flexibility forced the Bank of Canada's monetary authorities move to transactions with securities on the open market.
The first such transaction, the Bank of Canada had to rescue the Canadian dollar during the currency crisis of 1962. Currently, the policy of the Bank of Canada is viewed method of regulating reserve requirements of commercial banks.
Changing them, the Bank of Canada increased or decreased amounts of cash commercial banks for lending. In addition, since 1971, the Bank of Canada sets limits on increases in the money supply.
However, these measures do not always contribute to adequate regulation of the economy. Commercial banks in Canada The main link of the credit system in Canada are private commercial or privileged banks.
They have a huge impact on the structure of private investment and consumer spending in the country lending to industrial, commercial and other enterprises. During its existence, the commercial banks are constantly focused, ie mergers and acquisitions took place, their numbers decreased, but increased financial strength. Canadian law on banks, created by the English model, promoted the organization of large banks and their branches in the provinces, which allowed banks to maneuver in cash in various geographical locations. Commercial banks are the depository of Canada, they account for bills, take demand deposits, open to customers personal savings and term deposits.
In his briefcase holding government securities and private governmental corporations, provide loans to companies, individuals carry out transactions with the currency, maintain export operations. Commercial banks issue credit cards and traveler's checks, provide services for the storage of valuables in special safes carry out operations on the medium-and long-term lease of machinery and equipment. They have turned into major 'institutions to provide financial services. " The main kind of active operations of commercial banks are lending operations.
In the lending operations of banks is dominated by short-term loans to private enterprises, and recently increased the amount of loans in the housing and hire purchase. In the lending industry tendency of industry specialization, but has recently dominated the universalization of banking functions, the creation of consortium banks to finance large industrial facilities. Commercial banks provide exporters are mainly short-term loans and long-term function of lending undertaken by the state.
In the postwar period has changed the structure of investments of commercial banks in securities. For a long time, commercial banks prefer government bonds, in the future they are evenly allocate their funds among securities of the state and corporations. In the liabilities of commercial banks occupy a high proportion of savings accounts.
From these deposits the banks get the biggest share of the profits for lending. Expanded foreign currency deposits, which are used by banks to lend to foreign customers, to finance foreign trade transactions.
Recently, the network of Canadian branches of commercial banks in other countries, the largest number of branches, subsidiaries, agencies openly in the United States, the United Kingdom, the countries of the Near and Middle East. In essence, the commercial banks in Canada are transformed into international credit institutions, head offices are located in Canada. For multinational banks in the first place can be attributed all the leading "five" commercial banks in the country - "Royal Bank of Kenada", "Kenedien Imperial Bank of Commerce", "Bank of Montreal", "Bank of Nova Scotia", "Toronto-Dominion Bank ".