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Serious structural problems...

Автор: olegj от 12-03-2013, 16:51

Serious structural problems...

Serious structural problems in the U. S. economy led to the collapse of the U. S. currency, and eventually 18 February 2004 the euro reached a maximum level of $ 1.2930 in the history of the currency. The appreciation of the euro against the dollar over the past two years was 4200 points. The market has already seen the potential the euro / dollar at around 1.30, and called the following strategic goals - $ 1.40-$ 1.45. However, the expectations of the market did not come to fruition.

This development was in the hands of the U. S. trade deficit which declined due to weak local currency, but the euro area this development is certainly frightening. Representatives of the European Central Bank began to actively make statements about the possible intervention of the Central Bank of the eurozone in the event of the Euro at $ 1.30. The market began active speculation in this kind of verbal interventions, allowing the exchange rate to roll back from the highs and enter a phase of correction. And by this time arrived, positive data on U. S. economic recovery. U. S. GDP growth, the reduction of the trade deficit, the restoration of the U. S. stock market and the first signs of recovery of the labor market have supported the U. S. currency against the euro.

Serious structural problems...

Since late 2005 the euro began to rise again against the dollar and the growth period was the longest - about 2.5 years. As a result, in April 2008, the euro was at $ 1.60. But then, against the backdrop of the global economic crisis, the dollar rose sharply - to $ 1.24. In the first half of 2009, the dollar exchange rate against the euro fluctuated in the range of $ 1.25-$ 1.35 per euro, and in the second half of 2009 began to rise again to $ 1.45. Stock markets in Western Europe In Western Europe there are 17 countries in 58 different stock exchanges. In the leading capitalist countries, the stock market has a large, though not the same value. This concerns, first of all, the UK, Switzerland, Holland, and also in France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg brightly specific market.

In countries such as Austria, Italy, Spain, and also in the Nordic countries, the role of stock markets is low. In Greece, Ireland, Portugal, they have little or no value. Obviously, the largest Western European market shares - English, much less than the U. S., but at the same time much more than any other Western European - Swiss, German and French.

As for the value of the stock market and the reproduction of capital, leading, on an equal footing with the United States, the role played by the equity markets of Great Britain and Switzerland, but here it is necessary to take into account a large share of foreign stocks. A much smaller role played by the Dutch stock market, even less - the French, Belgian and German.

Of bond markets is the largest in Germany, the second largest in the UK, and the backlog of them from the United States is much less. The highest value of the bond market is in the UK economy, Belgium and Germany. But the difference is not only in the volume and value of the stock exchanges.

A number of differences shows a brief description of the leading Western European stock markets. UK stock market UK stock market has traditionally been, because of the heavy capitalization British monopolies (324 billion dollars in 1992), an important part of the credit and financial mechanism of the country. The broad re-privatization of the public sector has given a significant boost to stock market capitalization. In 1967 all the country's stock exchanges were merged into the regional exchanges in Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow and Belfast.

Pronounced leader is the London Stock Exchange. It is a joint stock company and is not subject to direct state control. Its management by a board of the exchange, consisting of 45 members, including one representative of the Central Bank, without the right to vote.

4482 Meeting of the Board shall be elected by the members and the "Self" in collaboration with the Central Bank of the stock exchange's activity. Shares and bonds are issued mainly registered. Bearer securities are permitted, but the English issuers poorly distributed. Foreign stocks must be stored in special depots authorized credit institutions.

Transactions are made mainly on the time. Bonds sold cash transactions.

Serious structural problems...

Set to the current exchange rate. Exchange trade covers a very large share of the total turnover of stock values.

Serious structural problems...

Trade unlisted securities on the Stock Exchange is authorized by the Board of the Exchange. Since 1980 he has been working at the stock exchange so-called mini-market conditions with reduced admission for the treatment of the exchange of shares of medium and small firms.

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