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Set a single rate

Автор: olegj от 8-03-2013, 19:50

Set a single rate

Set a single rate. Commissions average. There is both a cash and derivatives market, but each share shall be allowed only to one kind of operations. Before 1986, all the shares were registered in France, but are now actively the transition to non-cash shares, which currently account for 35% of all shares. Capitalization of French corporations significant.

Factor in its continued growth is a large privatization program of the government. As part of the reform of the exchange was set up a mini-market and held a definite "deregulation" of the stock conversion.

Set a single rate

Have adopted various measures to encourage tax investments in securities. For purposes of international competitiveness will further removal of various restrictions. Discussed even undermine the monopoly of brokers in favor of expanding the range of financial institutions and foreign intermediaries. But while the French international functions of the stock market because of its relatively strict state-monopoly regulation and also the low level of liberalization of international capital flows are limited.

The stock market in Germany In Germany, there are seven stock exchanges located in Frankfurt am Main, Düsseldorf, Bremen, Hamburg, Hannover, Munich, Stuttgart and Berlin, among which the stock exchanges of Frankfurt and Dusseldorf, realizing 51% and 39% of the total exchange turnover. Stock exchanges are a public-law institutions and subject, according to the federal structure of the country's land.

Set a single rate

Managing the activities of the Exchange Council shall be elected by its members - brokers, which are dominated by representatives of the banks. The market mainly cash.

Transactions for the period are allowed only in the form of stock options. For the majority of the shares set a single rate for stocks of large monopolies determined by the current exchange rate.

Commissions average. A distinctive feature of the German stock market is a huge influence banks' monopoly exercised by them throughout their development. Relatively small market shares, capitalization of corporations is about 580 billion marks. The bond market is more developed, but are treated primarily government and bank bonds.

Traditionally close links between banking and industrial capital explains the preference for the use of medium-and long-term bank loans relative to the use of securities. German banks "prefer to lend than mediate going public.

" Monopolistic banks almost completely monopolize the stock market. They are engaged in issuance and placement of securities that are actively engaged in the secondary market themselves own large blocks of securities. Influence, based on your own, direct ownership of shares (about 9% of all shares), multiplied shares owned in trust departments. Thus, the share of German banks at the disposal of capital is very significant.

The financial capital of Germany is different highly organized and relative stability of the structures. About 48% of all the shares is in constant possession and refers only formally. The secondary market is therefore not very active, though turnover on the stock exchange - only a part of the stock turnover because many transactions are realized directly between banks, bypassing the exchange.

Government intervention is weak. Federation, the Länder and their bodies are actively using bond market to refinance debt. In recent years, the government is actively seeking more through tax rebates and re-privatization of the public sector to encourage both the production and acquisition of shares, stock exchange and their treatment.

The stock market of Belgium Belgian stock market although not very large, but has a significant importance in the financing of the reproduction of the national capital. The Brussels Stock Exchange is central.

Set a single rate

Exchange of Antwerp, Ghent, Liege are provincial in nature. The Exchange is an independent institution which is under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance. Brokers have a monopoly right to conduct transactions with securities.

Trade unlisted made, as necessary, on an exchange. Transactions for the period are widespread. Commissions are relatively low. Market capitalization is significant, although about 1/3 of the shares the concern Petrofina.

In 1992 it amounted to 859 billion b. fr. The appeal is a lot of foreign securities, but the nomination of Brussels as a "Western European capital" had little effect on the stock market. Italy's stock market Although Italy is one of the economically developed countries, the stock market is extremely underdeveloped country. It is purely national, aimed mainly at providing financing public debt. The country's main stock exchange in Milan, along which there are seven local exchanges.

As a reflection of the relatively low concentration in many industries, the capitalization of Italian corporations is low - $ 43 billion in 1993

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