Initially, the functions of the provincial banks were limited to a certain area or industry, but now it extends to the entire territory of Germany and beyond. The largest of the country banks are Bavarian mortgage and bank promissory notes, as well as the Bavarian combined bank. For commercial or credit, and banks are branches of foreign banks. They serve the commercial and industrial activities in these countries to Germany.
The group of commercial banks are also private bankers who are conducting operations at the commercial service industry and services, select circle of customers. The largest banking houses by the end of the 1990s were "Trinkhauz und Burkhard", "Oppenheim", "Merck-Frank", "Schroeder", "Myunhmayer", "Hengs", "Warburg-Brinkman and Wirtz." All of them are centers of the financial oligarchy of Germany, which is closely related to foreign capital. In general, commercial banks or credit characteristic of Germany is strengthening processes of universalization in their activities.
This means that they are engaged in almost all activities, except for mortgage loans, but including transactions with securities. In the U. S., for example, this type of transactions with corporate securities is prohibited for commercial banks, are engaged in them ditnye special credit institutions - investment banks. Specialized credit institutions in Germany This group of German banks are lending institutions that specialize in the activity advantage tively on one type of operations, while engaged in other operations.
Specialized banks include banks with special challenges or state credit institutions, mortgage banks, savings banks and their centers - zhirotsentrali, credit unions and co-operative central banks. Banks with special challenges are public. They were set up after the war to help the private sector by the government and the growing influence of the latter on the process of social reproduction.
These banks are directly subordinate to the government of the country. Notable among this group occupy a bank recovery and Export Bank. Bank for Reconstruction (Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau) - it is a national investment bank, which was established by the Law of November 5, 1948 The purpose of its creation, as stated in the law, is to ensure all sectors of the economy and medium-term loans and long-term recovery of the economy.
The Bank provides loans to recover investment and exports, and also serves as a development bank. Export Bank (Ausfuhrkredit) specializes in providing medium-and long-term loans for export, mainly German equipment.
The group of banks with special challenges are also state Industrial Credit Bank, Agricultural Bank of rental, the Bank of alignment burden, etc. Mortgage banks have been developed for the first time in Germany. The first of these was the state mortgage bank in Silesia, founded in 1770 he provided financial assistance to major landowner farms.
In the XIX century. mortgage banks have been serving small landed estates and farms.
In the second half of the XIX century. created mortgage banks to lend to the urban real estate.
The first private bank mortgage (equity) was established in 1862 in Frankfurt-am-Main. The First World War, hyperinflation 20s and the global economic crisis has led to a reduction in the number of mortgage banks from 39 in 1914 to 30 in 1930 During the Second World War, mortgage banks were on the verge of bankruptcy, but after the currency reform in 1948 20 banks have resumed their activities.
Mortgage banks provide long-term loans secured by real estate with funds from the issuance and sale of registered bonds (large bills) and bearer (melkokupyurnye). Controlling stake in many private mortgage banks of Germany belongs grossbankam that capture and management positions in state mortgage banks. The largest private mortgage banks are the German central land bank.
Frankfurt Mortgage Bank, the Rhine and the German mortgage bank mortgage bank in Bremen.