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Sismondi believed that...

Автор: olegj от 23-05-2013, 21:38

Sismondi believed that...

Sismondi believed that the annual... Sismondi believed that the annual production is a result of all the work completed during the year. It consists of a two income classes - capitalists and workers. The workers all their due share consume no residue, and the capitalists they received surplus value is divided into two parts: one, they pay in private consumption, that is spend on their needs, and the other - accumulate.

Sismondi saw no possibility that part of the income that goes to build: there is no one to buy it, as the entire demand of the society would be defined only if the sum of wages and personal consumption of capitalists. According to Sismondi, this part of the revenue can be realized only in the non-capitalist environment (a so called "third party" - not the capitalist and the worker). As such could be an artisan or farmer, is not involved in capitalist production. As they ruin and becoming a salaried job disappears buyer of that part of the surplus product that goes to savings.

As soon disappear craftsmen, artisans and peasants, landowners sell this part of the surplus in a "purely capitalist environment" is supposedly just a nobody. Capitalism, in the absence of foreign markets is doomed to failure - this is the conclusion of Sismondi.

Error Swiss economist was primarily in the fact that he lost sight of the existence of the constant part of capital, consisting of capital goods, raw materials, fuel, machinery and equipment. In the process of capitalist development of this part of the share in the total amount of the invested capital is steadily increasing, causing a rise in the organic composition of capital. Thus capitalists are increasingly part of the surplus value of the cost of buying each other elements of constant capital that is necessary for the continuation of the production process in an enlarged scale. Building on the ideas of Marx, Lenin drew attention to the fact that the social division of labor under private ownership of the means of production is accompanied by the transformation of subsistence farming in simple commodity production, which subsequently on the basis of the law of value and competition becomes a capitalist production.

Sismondi believed that...

All this causes a rise in the domestic market. Lenin explains... Lenin explains the need for the export of capital under capitalism, the fact of the relative over-accumulation of capital (as a consequence of monopoly domination) and the desire to invest in a country where the rate of return is higher. While acknowledging the over-accumulation of capital, radical theorists do not need to connect the export of capital with the desire of capitalists to invest more profitably.

Sismondi believed that...

They argue that the search for opportunities abroad more profitable investment now have a much lower value, because open Marx tendency to fall in the rate of capitalist profit under current conditions would be completely lost if the power in the monopolized and non-monopolized sectors of the capitalist economy. Such a statement is theoretically quite untenable and contrary to the statistical data.

If you believe the claims of radical theorists (eg, D. Dzhillmenu) with respect to the persistently high rates of profit in a capitalist economy and the lack of tendency to its decrease, it becomes quite clear why the capitalists are not constantly expanding production in their own country. After determining the motive and purpose of capitalist production, as shown by Marx and confirmed by the whole course of capitalist development - in profit. Baran, Sweezy and their followers claim that crucial to the expansion of capitalist production is not as if the objective factors (profitability of investment), but purely subjective psychological factor - the mood of the capitalists, their misgivings about the possible consequences of capital investment. Forecasts capitalists, according to the radicals, usually, usually gloomy.

Sismondi believed that...

Such pessimism they associate with the difficulties of the "economic surplus." Knowing these difficulties, the capitalists refrain from investments. But why there is an "economic surplus", even to the extent that it can not be implemented if within the "pure" capitalist society, that is, in the industrially developed capitalist countries? Its existence they explain on the basis of the petty-bourgeois "theory of underconsumption", which is based on the views of the Swiss economist Simonde de Sismondi (-), sharply criticized capitalism with petty items.


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