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Direct - the course...

Автор: olegj от 29-03-2013, 07:27

 Direct - the course...

Direct - the course unit of foreign currency is expressed in local currency. Indirect - exchange rates commensurate 2 in 3 currencies. Currency basket - that a set of currencies that are used in the quotation of foreign currency.

SDR: USA - 42%, Germany - 19%, Japan - 15%, France - 12%, England - 12%. The arms of the Central Bank, which influence the purchase of foreign currency in the country: 1. Discount (discount) purchase - change the interest rate of the Central Bank to regulate the exchange rate by affecting the movement of short-term capital. In terms of passive balance of payments of the Central Bank discount rate overstates and thereby stimulates the flow of foreign capital from countries where the level of interest rates lower.

2. Currency intervention - the direct intervention of the Central Bank in the foreign exchange market activity to influence the rate of the national currency through the purchase and sale of foreign currency. Currency risks - arise in the export-import operations and the sale of goods on credit due to changes in foreign currency against foreign currencies due to the decline in its purchasing power due to worsening terms of trade.

Currency clause - used while minimizing currency risk. They come in two types: Double-sided, and that protect the interests of the buyer and the seller. Single-sided, which protect the interests of suppliers in the supply of highly marketable weight in developing and developed countries.

 Direct - the course...

The banking practice various methods of foreign exchange risk insurance by creating a counter-claims and liabilities in foreign currency (hedging techniques). The most common methods of hedging: 1. Conclusion forward exchange transactions to carry out forward operations in which the bank firm carries currency at the rate of "spot" (the current exchange rate), and the sale at the rate of "forward" (advanced). The course "spot" is different from "forward" on the value of prizes, 1 <2 on the amount of discount, if 1> 2. 2. Currency options can provide more flexibility when dealing with currency and financial instruments and to minimize the degree of currency risk. When buying an option for a fee (premium) is one of the individual legal entity authorizes another person to buy to sell at an agreed rate on any day during a certain period, or opt out of the deal without damages.

In contrast to the forward transactions, which allows to fix a separate rate for the upcoming currency transactions, currency option gives its buyer the right to choose also between the execution of the transaction failure to perform its obligations under the circumstances stipulated by the contract. An important place in international settlements occupy guarantor.

the operation of the NBU. It can provide a cash performance Ukrainian, foreign, international operations through the provision of bank guarantees and sureties must properly with their software. The list of documents to guarantee: Order a client to issue guarantees One-time general obligation to reimburse the customer's bank to the amount of the guarantee a copy of the contract of witnessing another similar document from which it became necessary to issue guarantees Original bills, schedule payments on bills warranty obligation.

The history of the monetary system in France Currency and currency In France, for most of the XIX century. bimetallism existed. By law, 1803 gold and silver were subject to the free coinage, and coins of both metals have unlimited power of legal tender "1 kg of gold minted 3100 francs, and 1 kg of silver - 200 francs.

Thus, value-law relationship between gold and silver were taken 1: 15.5. The actual ratio of the market values ​​of these metals deviate from the statutory then the one side or the other. As a result, monetary circulation in France during certain periods drives out silver gold, and others - to drive out the gold silver. In 1865, France topped the Latin monetary union, and in 1873 abolished the free coinage of silver, retaining it only for gold.

 Direct - the course...

This meant that the transition from bimetallism to the gold monometallism. However, over the previous five-franc minted silver coins has been preserved unlimited power of legal tender. Therefore, the French monetary system was gold monometallism "limping type."

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