The exception is Brazil. The increasing presence of foreign banks has led to a reduction in interest and state and national private capital in the ownership structure. Very much local private capital was to make the room in Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. In countries with historically dominant role of state-owned banks, such as Brazil, the penetration of foreign banks was due to privatization. In Argentina and Venezuela, the arrival of foreigners took place as a result of privatization and acquisition of stakes in major banks to private shareholders.
In Southeast Asia, foreign banks play in comparison with Latin America and Eastern Europe, a much smaller role. This is largely due to the policy of the local authorities that restrict the access of foreign entrants to retail banking. A similar policy was pursued in relation to foreign banks, even in financial centers such as Hong Kong and Singapore. Restrictions continue to exist as the number of foreign banks in the national banking system and the number of branches they can open.
After the crisis of 1997 was available in most countries, with the exception of Malaysia, significantly liberalized. It should be noted that despite the unfriendly climate of the share of foreign banks in Malaysia remains one of the highest in the region. The forms of the admission of foreign banks can vary significantly.
Malaysia bans the opening of branches of foreign banks, and for Korea and Thailand, this form is the predominant presence. In Thailand, the access of foreign capital in the banking sector in addition to the branch forms allowed by the organization affiliated institutions, which prescribes conduct its operations solely on the basis of resources received from abroad.
The most interesting is the experience of Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole region (excluding Russia), foreign banks control about 80% of all banking assets. In most of these countries, they were able to seize the commanding heights of the banking system.
If the local private capital and has some influence in the banking system, a number of countries, it often is in third place after the foreign banks and entities controlled by the state. Thus it can be represented by a large number of small institutions.
This is well illustrated by the example of Poland. The most massive in terms of number of institutions is a co-operative sector, which accounts for more than 400 credit institutions and only 5% of the assets of the banking system. The entry of foreign banks into a new market can be done in two ways - either by growth on its own basis, or as a result of acquisition of an existing local bank.
In Eastern Europe, in some combination used both of these strategies. In this general pattern is as follows: where the government has set itself the goal as quickly as possible to privatize the banking sector, major acquisitions were made.
However, where privatization was difficult and slow, there was an increase of foreign bank subsidiaries and branches on its own basis. Interestingly, the most active buying by local banks, foreign investors have shown not only in the country - the "leaders" of the transition (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland), but also in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Romania. The main acquisitions were made during the privatization of state-owned banks and to a much lesser extent - through the stock market.
The process of joining the foreign capital continued very intensively in recent years. Several countries have finally completed the process of privatization of the banking sector. At the same time selling its stakes in the banking system is not only governments, but also private owners resident. It should be noted that in some countries, such as Poland, actively used the exchange mechanism, which allows to combine in a transaction on the absorption of local banks by foreign capital the U. S. ("outsider") and European ("insider") mechanisms.
Foreign control in the banking sector is not only foreign banks. Holders may make investment packages and financial companies, corporations, other sectoral focus. For example, in the Czech Republic a significant package of the third largest bank in the country Investicni a Postovni banka was bought by Nomura International, acquired a substantial share of Agrobanka financial services company General Electric Capital Services.
The interest of foreign banks significantly increased under the influence of a number of countries joining the EU. Local banking systems have increasingly been perceived as part of the European single market, rather than as a riskier peripheral spheres of capital investment. Accordingly, as a priority, the region is perceived mainly European banks, which are at the global level are likely to second echelon.
Ceteris paribus Western banks prefer to create their overseas branches, subsidiaries and not the institution. Branch reflects a high degree of commitment to this market, as it involves the full responsibility of the parent for all liabilities of the branch and requires a willingness to risk greater resources than its contribution to the charter capital of "daughter".
The form of participation, of course, much depends on local legislation and the approach of national regulators.